Cyber Laws in Asia

  • Cyber Legislation UNCTADINDIA

Information Technology Act, 2000

India has adopted the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000) being the Cyber Law in India aimed at promoting e-commerce. Further the Information Technology Act, 2000 (No. 21 of 2000) has been amended by the the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008 (No. 10 of 2009). It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.

  • MALDIVES

Maldives does not have any officially recognized regulation pertaining to Cyber Law.

Maldives has signed a Memorandum of Collaboration against Malicious Activities in Cyberspace with Japan Ministry of Information and Communication.

(http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Cybersecurity/Documents/Country_Profiles/Maldives.pdf)

National Security Policy 2012

http://www.defence.gov.mv/english/images/publications/National_Security_Policy_2012.pdf

  • BANGLADESH

Bangladesh Telecommunication Act, 2001.

Bangladesh Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act, 2006 amended in the year of 2009 & 2013

(http://www.ictd.gov.bd/site/page/afc77b3b-33e5-4a27-b453-6c48a9fe61f8)

Bangladesh Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Act, 2006 are the main substantive law of cyber crimes.

  • BHUTAN

Bhutan does not have any specific cybercrime legislation but it has adopted the Bhutan Information and Communication Media Act 2006 http://www.moic.gov.bt/daden/uploads/2014/04/actenglish2006.pdf provides functions, responsibilities and powers of the Ministry of Information and Communications; the establishment of the Bhutan Infocomm and Media Authority; provision of ICT facilities and ICT services; provisions relating to radio communications; provisions relating to media issues; provisions relating to cyber issues such as e-governance, e-commerce, consumer protection and online privacy; and offences, penalties and legal proceedings.

  • CHINA

Regulations on Safeguarding Computer Information Systems, Feb. 1996

(http://fas.org/irp/world/china/docs/computer_code.htm)

Article 1- These regulations have been formulated to safeguard computer information systems, to promote the application and development of computers, and to ensure smooth progress in socialist modernization.

 

  • INDONESIA

Indonesia does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 2008 Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions, see http://www.bu.edu/bucflp/files/2012/01/Law-No.-11-Concerning-Electronic-Information-and-Transactions.pdf

Regulation Number 82 of 2012 Concerning Electronic System and Transaction Operation http://rulebook-jica.ekon.go.id/english/4902_ PP_82_2012_e.html.

Law on Consumers’ Protection 1999 http://www.cipatent.com/consumersprotectionlaw. pdf

Pornography Law 2008.

  • MALAYSIA

Malaysia has adopted the Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia (http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20563.pdf). Part II of the Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia deals with offences. It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.

The Computer Crimes Act 1997 of Malaysia & the Penal Code (Revised 1997) of Malaysia, are the main substantive law.

Electronic Commerce Act 2006 http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2014/Act%20 658.pdf.

Electronic Government Activities Act 2007 http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/apcity/unpan031538.pdf.

Digital Signature Act 1997 http://www.skmm.gov.my/Legal/Acts/DIGITAL-SIGNATURE-ACT-1997-REPRINT-2002.aspx.

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 http://www.kpkk.gov.my/pdf/Personal%20Data%20 Protection%20Act%202010.pdf.

Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 http://www.skmm.gov.my/Legal/Acts/ Communications-and-Multimedia-Act-1998- Reprint-200.aspx.

Consumer Protection Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20 599%20-%20Consumer%20Protection%20Act%20 1999.pdf.

  • MYANMAR

Myanmar does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted the Electronic Transactions Law ( The State Peace and Development Council Law No. 5/2004 ) The 12th Waxing of Kason 1366 M.E. (30th April, 2004) (http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan041197.pdf).

Electronic Transaction Law 2004 http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/un-dpadm/unpan041197.pdf.

Computer Science Development Law 1996 http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_ id=182055.

  • NEPAL

Nepal does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted The Electronic Transaction Act, 2063 & Electronic Transaction Rules 2064 (http://moste.gov.np/document_search&filter_name=electronic%20#.VMtIctKUeBk) which is the Nepal’s first cyber law. The Chapter 9 of the Electronic Transaction Act, 2063 deals with various cybercrimes. It includes penal substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules.

  •  SINGAPORE

Singapore does not have any officially recognized national legislation pertaining to cyber law. But it has adopted the Electronic Transactions Act (ETA) (Cap 88) (see http://www.ida.gov.sg/Policies-and-Regulations/Acts-and-Regulations/Electronic-Transactions-Act-and-Regulations) was first enacted in July 1998 to provide a legal foundation for electronic signatures, and to give predictability and certainty to contracts formed electronically.

The Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/view.w3p;page=0;query=DocId:8a3534de-991c-4e0e-88c5-4ffa712e72af%20%20Status:inforce%20Depth:0;rec=0) &

Spam Control Act (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/aol/search/display/view.w3p;ident=25e653e9-ddc4-4b48-85f5-0a3817c1ea55;page=0;query=Id%3A%22b81d86b6-20e4-4467-93ed-9c3901c55e73%22%20Status%3Ainforce;rec=0#legis) are the main substantive law.

In addition, Personal Data Protection Act 2012 of the Singapore http://www.mci.gov.sg/~/media/data/mci/docs/infocomm/dataprotectionbill/pdpa.pdf?la=en

Consumer Protection (Fair Trading) Act 2003 (http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/).
MDA Internet Code of Practice

(http://www.mda.gov.sg/Documents/PDF/licences/ mobj.981.Internet_Code_of_Practice.pdf).

  • THAILAND

Thailand does not have any specific Cyber Law legislation but it has adopted Computer Crime Act B.E 2550 (2007) of Thailand (http://www.thailawforum.com/database1/thailand-computer-crime-law.html). The Computer Crime Act B.E 2550 (2007) of Thailand deals with various cyber crimes. It includes substantive rules, regulations and also procedural rules. (http://www.thailawforum.com/articles/laws-and-policies-of-thailand-in-supporting-electronic-commerce-2.html)

Electronic Transactions Act 2001
(http://www.bot.or.th/English/PaymentSystems/BOT_ps/PSRegulation/Documents/et_act_2544_Eng.pdf).

Consumer Protection Act 1979
(http://www.asianlii.org/th/legis/consol_act/cpa1979246/).
Unfair Contract Terms Act 1997
(http://www.samuiforsale.com/law-texts/unfaircontract-terms-act.html (unofficial translation).

  • BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

Electronic Transactions Act 2008 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/Electronic%20Transactions%20(chp.196).pdf.

Computer Misuse Act 2007 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/Computer%20Misuse.pdf.

Sale of Goods Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/ Chp.170.pdf.

Unfair Contract Terms Act 1999 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/PDF/ Chp.171.pdf.

Authority for Info-communications Technology Brunei Darussalam Order 2001 http://www.agc.gov.bn/agc1/images/LOB/Order/ ABC/A/Authority%20for%20info-communica­tions%20Technology%20Industry%20of%20BD%20 Order,%202001.pdf.

  • CAMBODIA

Law on the Press 1995 (Khmer only) http://cambodia.ohchr.org/klc_pages/KLC_files/ section_006/section06_002_1995.pdf.

Regulations on Registration of Domain Names for Internet under the Top Level “kh” http://www.gocambodia.com/KHDomainReg/ Regulation_on_Reg.asp.

  • THE LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

Electronic Transactions Law 2012.

Ministry of Information and Culture, Special Provisions (416/IC) for Control of the Content and the Information and Data Obtained via the Internet System.

Telecommunication Law 2001 http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_ id=180335.

  • THE PHILIPPINES

Electronic Commerce Act 2000 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2000/ ra_8792_2000.html.

Data Privacy Act (2012) http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2012/ ra_10173_2012.html.

Cybercrime Prevention Act 2012 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2012/ ra_10175_2012.html.

Consumer Act 1991 http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1992/ ra_7394_1992.html.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Act 2004

http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2004/ ra_9285_2004.html.

  •  VIET NAM

Law on E-transactions 2005 http://chinhphu.vn/portal/page/portal/English/legaldocuments/Policies?categoryId=886&articl eId=10001393.

Decree No. 26 providing detailed regulations on the implementation of the Law on E-transactions on digital signature and digital signature certification services http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/Lists/Vn%20bn%20 php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=4172.

Management and Use of Internet Services Decree 2001 http://www.moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/Lists/Vn%20bn%20 php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=9441.

Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights 2010.